oward a Psychology of Being
Mar 7, 2014
by Abraham H. Maslow
“It has by now been sufficiently demonstrated that the human being has, as part of his intrinsic construction, not only physiological needs, but also truly psychological ones. They may be considered as deficiencies which must be optimally fulfilled by the environment in order to avoid sickness and subjective ill-being.
“If both the physiological and the safety needs are fairly well gratified, then there will emerge love and affection and belongingness needs. ….
“The fact is that people are good. Give people affection and security, and they will give affection and be secure in their feelings and their behavior.”
— Abraham H. Maslow, Toward a Psychology of Being
This is a post about friendships: their importance in one’s life (touched upon very briefly here); and, mainly, the importance of trying to maintain them.
What I am thinking of is the importance of one’s being able to form and maintain ongoing friendships with people whom one would not have perhaps expected to form a friendship with or to be able to along with, and with friends whom one has acquired but about whom one has sometimes wondered: is it worth maintaining the friendship?
To frame the issue in a nutshell, I would say: You’ve got to give people a chance — to extend a friendly hand, so to speak; to show, all things being equal, a willingness to become acquainted with others (rather than acting as if you are too important or busy); to not be too hasty to judge or jump to conclusions with regard to what you might think of the other person.
You’ve got to be willing — once a friendship has been formed, and particularly in the case of longstanding relationships — to put up with the failings and annoying habits of others, if they desire a friendship. (Note that I said “they,” not “you.”)
That is the key, in my opinion, because if the other person desires a friendship, they probably have something to offer.
Don’t turn them away, reject them. You’ll be cutting off your nose to spite your face. You will never know what you may have missed.
Every friend is precious, just as every person is unique and precious. Our lifetimes are finite, and our experience is limited — we can’t get to know everyone. Our life histories — indeed, our personalities — are a “compost” of all the people we have been privileged to become acquainted with.
You’ll be surprised what people — including those you may sometimes find boring, tedious, or difficult — can offer.
Of course, there are exceptions to the rule!
People to AVOID:
people who are always negative; and,
people whose only interest in associating with you is as a sounding board for them to talk about their problems. A relationship by definition involves TWO people. There must be back and forth. It can’t be just the other person talking about their problems.
To get back to my main point.
People will surprise you with the things they come out with. Just when you have grown tired of them or their company, they will say something interesting or funny; perhaps tell you something you didn’t know; provide information that you were not privy to and are glad to have; provide helpful advice or a useful suggestion or tip.
Sometimes people when you least expect it will reveal something good about themselves — it could be intelligence, insight, their humanity, or a positive or winning character trait that you had not hitherto appreciated.
Another thing I would like to point out about my experience with friendships — speaking solely from my own experience — is that it behooves one to be patient and to GIVE THEM TIME. To hear one’s friends and acquaintances out. To clear the decks for them so to speak, when they want to communicate, talk.
Say, for example, that a friend calls me when I am very busy and I don’t answer the call. I make it a point to tell him that I am sorry I missed the call but that I will get back to him shortly. I tend to refrain from saying that I am “busy,” because that might convey an unstated message that I’m too darn busy to talk now and in the near future. Instead, I simply say that I am sorry I missed the call but will be getting back shortly.
I sometimes do the same thing with an email, if I’ve been sitting on it for, say, two or three days: send back a very brief message saying “pleased to hear from you, will reply at length within the next day or two.” It’s a common courtesy that costs nothing in terms of effort.
Regarding “putting up” with people, when one is very busy. What I have found is that, if I can somehow manage to tear myself away from whatever it is that is preoccupying me and lend an ear, give attention to my friend, it pays off in the long run. I preserve the friendship, and it is usually not a waste of time. Not only because one is sort of acting benevolent, but also because, what I have found is that, at bottom, I myself am not too important or never really that busy to pay attention to someone else. The loss in time that I would have otherwise had to myself — what economists call “opportunity cost” — is a gain in terms of populating my time and life with interesting people and valued friends.
Bottom line: I would say, MAKE TIME for your friends; CREATE SPACE in the interstices of your life for them to fit into.
In writing this post I had in the back of my mind a particular individual, a friend whom I have recently acquired.
He became a friend sort of by accident, through a mutual acquaintance. We were introduced and he followed up a couple of times with me. We began to meet regularly and he sort of latched on to me — in other words, anointed and adopted me as his friend.
Occasionally, the mutual acquaintance who had introduced us and I have compared notes about my new friend. We both agreed that, while his intentions are good, he can sometimes try one’s patience. He has some annoying habits and seems deficient in certain social and interpersonal skills.
But, I have continued to see him.
To make a long story short, there are times when he has exasperated me. Once or twice, I thought of not returning his calls any more.
But, the relationship has persisted, and it has improved. What is notable to me is that my new friend’s sometimes off-putting behavior seems to have ameliorated.
What I think may be the case is that he is a somewhat lonely and needy person who senses that people may not always want to form friendships with him. He has told me that because of what would seem to be missteps, he has lost a few friends. In my case, as the relationship has progressed, he seems to have relaxed and seems to feel more assured now that I have accepted him as a friend.
Once he perceived this, it seems — whether consciously or unconsciously — his defenses seemed to be attenuated and some of his less desirable traits seemed to become less noticeable. For instance, out of loneliness, it seems, he would be very eager to talk and would tend to dominate the conversation. Now, it’s more of a two way exchange. We have gotten to trading jokes. He enjoys the harmless ones that I make at his expense — for example, when we recently gave one another trivia quizzes during a lunch together and I told him he that his grade was D. (He prides himself, deservedly so, on his knowledge of factoids.)
A win win situation, it seems. By not rejecting him, I have gained a friend, and he has become more pleasant to meet with.
A further thought.
Perhaps you like to think that you are broad minded. I know I do.
But most of us — practically everyone, it seems; indeed, it seems to be part and parcel of the human condition, unavoidable, in our bones — harbors dislikes toward or has reservations about certain groups: racial, ethnic, national, or religious. You may have a tendency to avoid such groups, perhaps fearing that not only will you not get along, but that they may not like you; or perhaps thinking you will have little in common.
A side benefit of openness and willingness in forming friendships is that you may find yourself befriending someone from one of those groups and find that all of a sudden, you’re hitting it off. Such unanticipated friendships can enable oneself to expand one’s horizons while experiencing a pleasurable, welcome, and congenial bonding and sharing.
I have experienced this myself on occasion: associating with someone from a group that I may myself have not been fully aware that I was prejudiced against or which I had tended to stereotype and have misconceptions about. Something good has occurred on a couple of occasions — both with persons I eventually got to know well and persons I have had a more casual relationship with — where I found myself saying to myself or my wife, “You know, I thought _______’s (some group) were usually _______ (something pejorative), but _______ (my new acquaintance) isn’t like that.”
It’s not just a matter of overcoming stereotypes (although it can be very helpful to do so). It is very valuable experience wise (I am perhaps stating the obvious) to able to get to know people from groups other than the ones one customarily finds oneself associating with; to get to know them on an individual level; and to find that you are both becoming comfortable in one another’s presence as time goes on — that you have become less aware than you ordinarily would be of the fact of, less preoccupied with, the other person’s race, ethnicity, or religion. Being absorbed in the relationship and the exchanges that are occurring, one tends to disregard externals.
I hope I don’t seem ingenuous in what I have been advocating in this post. At the risk of contradicting or undercutting practically everything I have said above, I must admit that there are some people who are just plain pernicious as far as interpersonal relationships are concerned (inimical, at a minimum, to one’s own self-interest, that is), persons who are detrimental to one’s wellbeing when it comes to associating with them. Which is to say that some people might find them to make wonderful friends, but one knows — which is to say that the individual, in this case you or I, knows, by instinct, usually right away, or nearly so — that you and that person will never get along. Not only that, but that you yourself and that person are so different in terms of personalities, core values, and behavior that association should be avoided or kept to a minimum.
From such people, one often gets a sense of derision or outright hostility. To the extent that they are aware of you, they do not esteem you.
Often, it seems — well not that often (if it were a common occurrence, it would not be propitious) — this has occurred to me with authority figures — a teacher, say; a boss; a coach — who takes an immediately negative view of oneself or deems you wanting in some respect and lets you know it. Not a potential “friendship situation,” but worth mentioning here as something often experienced and instructive in a harsh way.
In other instances where I have experienced an immediate mutual dislike and/or lack of any rapport whatsoever between myself and another person, it was usually with a fellow student or a coworker. One has a sixth sense about such things. I call it the “tip of the iceberg” theory. Very early on, some unpleasantness manifests itself, and one knows that the person should be avoided.
But, I am not talking about friendships here, right? Such “relationships” rarely proceed to that point.
— Roger W. Smith