Handel, “Hercules” (1745)

 

 

Handel, “Hercules” (1745)

 

 

 

 

HERCULES

A Musical Drama

Words by Thomas Broughton

DRAMATIS PERSONAE
Hercules, surnamed Alcides (bass)
Dejanira, his Wife (mezzo-soprano)
Hyllus, his Son (tenor)
Iole, Princess of Oechalia (soprano)
Lichas, a Herald, Faithful Servant to Dejanira (alto)
Priest of Jupiter (bass)
First Oechalian (soprano)
First Trachinian (tenor)
Chorus of Trachininans
Chorus
________________________________________

ACT ONE

1. Overture

Scene 1

The Palace in Trachis, Thessaly. Dejanira, Lichas and Trachinians.

2. Accompagnato
Lichas
See, with what sad dejection in her looks,
Indulging grief, the mournful princess sits.
She weeps from morning’s dawn to shades of night,
From gloom of night to redd’ning blush of morn,
Uncertain of Alcides’ destiny,
Disconsolate his absence she laments.

3. Air
Lichas
No longer, fate, relentless frown,
Preserve, great Jove, the hero’s life.
With glory’s wreath his actions crown,
And oh, restore him to his mourning wife!
No longer, fate. . . da capo

4. Accompagnato
Dejanira
O Hercules! Why art thou absent from me?
Return, return, my hero, to my arms!
O gods, how racking are the pains of absence
To one who loves, who fondly loves, like me!

5. Air
Dejanira
The world, when day’s career is run,
In darkness mourns the absent sun;
So I, deprived of that dear light
That warm’d my breast and cheer’d my sight,
Deplore in thickest gloom of grief
The absence of the valiant chief.

6. Recitative
Lichas
Princess, be comforted, and hope the best!
A few revolving hours may bring him back,
Once more to bless your longing arms.
Dejanira
Ah no, impossible! He never will return.
Lichas
Forbid it, Heav’n, and all ye guardian pow’rs
That watch o’er virtue, innocence and Iove!

Scene 2
To them Hyllus.
Dejanira
My son, dear image of thy absent sire!
What comfort bringst thou to thy mother’s ear?
Hyllus
Eager to know my father’s destiny,
I bade the priests with solemn sacrifice
Explore the will of Heav’n. The altar smok’d,
The slaughter’d victim bled, when lo, around
The hallow’d walls a sudden glory blaz’d!
The priest acknowledg’d the auspicious omen,
And own’d the present god, when, in a moment,
The temple shook, the glory disappear’d,
And more than midnight darkness veil’d the place.
Lichas
‘Twas dreadful all!
Hyllus
At length the sacred flamen,
Full of the deity, prophetic spoke:

7. Air
Hyllus
« I feel, I feel the god, he swells my breast.
Before my eyes the future stands confest:
I see the valiant chief in death laid low,
And flames aspire from Oeta’s lofty brow. »

8. Recitative
Hyllus
He said; the sacred fury left his breast
And on the ground the fainting prophet fell.
Dejanira
Then I am lost. O dreadful oracle,
My griefs hang heavy on my tortur’d soul,+
And soon will sink me to the realms of night!
There once again I shall behold my Hercules,
Or whirl the lance, or bend the stubborn bow,
Or to the listening ghosts his toils recount.

9. Air
Dejanira
There in myrtle shades reclin’d,
By streams that through Elysium wind,
In sweetest union we shall prove
Eternity of bliss and love.

10. Recitative
Hyllus
Despair not, but let rising hope suspend
Excess of grief, ’till I have learn’d the certainty
Of my dear father’s fate. Tomorrow’s sun
Shall see your Hyllus bend his pious steps
To seek the hero through the travell’d globe.
If yet he lives, I will restore him to you,
Or perish in the search.

11. Air
Hyllus
Where congeal’d the northern streams
Bound in icy fetters stand,
Where the sun’s intenser beams
Scorch the burning Lybian sand,
By honour, love and duty led,
There with daring steps I’ll tread.

12. Chorus of Trachinians
O filial piety, O gen’rous love!
Go, youth inspir’d, thy virtue prove!
Immortal fame attends thee,
And pitying Heav’n befriends thee!
O filial piety. . . da capo
Scene 3
To them Lichas

13. Recitative
Lichas
Banish your fears! The noble Hercules
Lives, and from sacked Oechalia, which his arms
Have levell’d with the ground, returns a conqueror!
Dejanira
O joyful news, welcome as rising day
To the benighted world, or falling showers
To the parched earth! Ye lying omens, hence!
Hence, every anxious thought!

14. Air
Dejanira
Begone, my fears, fly hence, away,
Like clouds before the morning ray!
My hero found,
With laurels crown’d,
Heav’n relenting,
Fate consenting,
Springing joys my griefs control,
And rising transports swell my soul.
Begone, my fears. . . da capo

15. Recitative
Lichas
A train of captives, red with honest wounds,
And low’ring on their chains, attend the conqueror.
But more to grace the pomp of victory,
The lovely lole, Oechalia’s princess,
With captive beauty swells the joyful triumph.
Hyllus
My soul is mov’d for the unhappy princess,
And fain, methinks, I would unbind her chains;
But say, her father, haughty Eurytus?
Lichas
He fell in single combat by the sword of Hercules.
Dejanira
No more, but haste, and wait thy lord’s arrival!
Exit Dejanira.
Lichas
How soon is deepest grief exchanged for bliss!

16. Air
Lichas
The smiling hours of joyful train
On silken pinions waft again
The moments of delight.
Returning pleasures banish woe,
As ebbing streams recruited flow,
And day succeeds to night.
The smiling hours. . . da capo

17. Chorus of Trachinians
Let none despair; relief may come though late,
And Heav’n can snatch us from the verge of fate.
Exeunt.

Scene 4
A square before the PaIace. Iole and Oechalian virgins, led captive.

18. Recitative
Iole
Ye faithful followers of the wretched Iole,
Your bonds sit heavier on me than my own.
Unhappy maids! My fate has dragg’d you down
Like some vast pile, that crushes with its fall
The neighb’ring domes, and spreads wide ruin round it.
First Oechalian
You are our mistress still!
Iole
Alas, Erastia,
Captivity, like the destroyer death,
Throws all distinctions down, and slaves are equal.
But if the gods relent, and give us back
To our lost liberty — ah me! — how soon
The flatt’rer hope is ready with his cordial!
Vain expectation! No, adieu for ever,
Ye smiling joys and innocent delights
Of youth and liberty! Oh, sad remembrance!

19. Air
Iole
Daughter of gods, bright liberty!
With thee a thousand graces reign,
A thousand pleasures crowd thy train
And hail the liveliest deity.
But thou, alas, hast wing’d thy flight,
The graces that surround thy throne
And all the pleasures with thee gone,
Remov’d for ever from my sight.
Daughter of gods. . . da capo

20. Recitative
Iole
But hark, the victor comes!

Scene 5
To them Hercules and attendants.

21. March

22. Recitative
Hercules
Thanks to the pow’rs above, but chief to thee,
Father of gods, from whose immortal loins
I drew my birth! Now my long toils are o’er,
And Juno’s rage appeas’d. With pleasure now,
At rest, my various labours I review.
OechaIia’s fall is added to my titles
And points the rising summit of my glory.
(Turning to Iole)
Fair princess, weep no more! Forget these bonds,
In Trachin you are free, as in Oechalia.
Iole
Forgive me, generous victor, if a sigh
For my dear father, for my friends, my country,
Will have its way. I cannot yet forget
That such things were, and that I once enjoy’d them.

23. Air
Iole
My father! Ah, methinks I see
The sword inflict the deadly wound:
He bleeds, he falls in agony,
Dying he bites the crimson ground.
Peaceful rest, dear parent shade,
Light the earth be on thee laid!
In thy daughter’s pious mind
All thy virtues live enshrin’d.
Exeunt Iole and Oechalians

Scene 6

24. Recitative
Hercules
Now farewell, arms! From hence, the tide of time
Shall bear me gently down to mellow age.
>From war to love I fly, my cares to lose
In gentle Dejanira’s fond embrace.

25. Air
Hercules
The god of battle quits the bloody field,
And useless hang the glitt’ring spear and shield,
While, all resign’d to conqu’ring beauty’s charms,
He gives a Ioose to Iove in Cytherea’s arms.

26. Chorus of Trachinians
Crown with festal pomp the day,
Be mirth extravagantly gay.
Bid the grateful altars smoke,
Bid the maids the youths provoke
To join the dance, while music’s voice
Tells aloud our rapt’rous joys!

ACT TWO

Scene 1
An apartment. Iole and Oechalians.

27. Sinfonia

28. Recitative
Iole
Why was I born a princess, rais’d on high,
To fall with greater ruin? Had the gods
Made me the humble tenant of some cottage,
I had been happy.

29. Air
Iole
How blest the maid ordained to dwell
With sweet content in humble cell,
From cities far remov’d,
By murm’ring rills on verdant plains
To tend the flocks with village swains,
By every swain belov’d.

Scene 2
To her Dejanira.

30. Recitative
Dejanira (aside)
It must be so! Fame speaks aloud my wrongs,
And every voice proclaims Alcides’ falsehood;
Love, jealousy and rage at once distract me!
Iole
What anxious cares untimely thus disturb
The happy consort of the son of Jove?
Dejanira
Insulting maid! I had indeed been happy,
But for the fatal lustre of thy beauty!

31. Air
Dejanira
When beauty sorrow’s livery wears,
Our passions take the fair one’s part.
Love dips his arrows in her tears,
And sends them pointed to the heart.
When beauty. . . da capo

32. Recitative
Iole
Whence this unjust suspicion?
Dejanira
Fame of thy beauty, so report informs me,
First brought Alcides to Oechalia’s court.
He saw, he lov’d, he ask’d you of your father.
His suit rejected, in revenge he levell’d
The haughty town, and bore away the spoil:
But the rich prize, for which he fought and conquer’d,
Was lole.
Iole
Ah, no! It was ambition,
Not slighted love, that laid Oechalia low
And made the wretched lole a captive.
Report, that in the garb of truth disguises
The blackest falsehood, has abus’d your ear
With a forg’d tale; but oh, let me conjure you
For your dear peace of mind, beware of jealousy!

33. Air
Iole
Ah, think what ills the jealous prove!
Adieu to peace, adieu to love,
Exchang’d for endless pain.
With venom fraught the bosom swells,
And never-ceasing discord dwells
Where harmony should reign.
Ah, think what ills. . . da capo

34. Recitative
Dejanira (going)
It is too sure that Hercules is false.

Scene 3
Enter Lichas.
Lichas
My godlike master?
Dejanira
Is a traitor, Lichas.
Traitor to honour, love and Dejanira.
Lichas
Alcides false? Impossible.

35. Air
Lichas
As stars, that rise and disappear,
Still in the same bright circle move,
So shines unchang’d thy hero’s love,
Nor absence can his faith impair.
The breast where gen’rous valour dwells,
In constancy no less excels.
As stars. . .da capo

36. Recitative
Dejanira
In vain you strive his falsehood to disguise.
Exit Dejanira.
Lichas
This is thy work, accursed jealousy.

37. Chorus
Jealousy! Infernal pest,
Tyrant of the human breast!
How from slightest causes bred
Dost thou lift thy hated head!
Trifles. light as floating air.
Strongest proofs to thee appear!
Exit Lichas.

Scene 4
Iole; to her Hyllus.

38. Recitative
Hyllus (aside, entering)
She knows my passion, and has heard me breathe
My am’rous vows; but, deaf to the soft plea,
Rejects my offer’d love. See where she stands,
Like fair Diana, circled by her nymphs.
Iole
Too well, young prince,
I guess the cause that this way leads your steps.
Why will you urge a suit I must not hear?
Love finds no dwelling in that hapless breast
Where sorrow and her gloomy train reside.
Hyllus
The stealing hand of all-subduing time
May drive these black intruders from their seat,
And leave the heav’nly mansion of thy bosom
Serene and vacant to a softer guest.
Iole
Think’st thou Iole can ever love
The son of Hercules, whose arms depriv’d her
Of country, father, liberty? Impossible!
Hyllus
I own the truths that blast my springing hopes;
Yet, oh permit me, chairming maid, to gaze
On those dear beauties that enchant my soul
And view, at Ieast, that heav’n I must despair to gain.
Iole
Is this, is this the son of Hercules,
For labours fam’d and hardy deeds of arms?
O prince, exert the virtues of thy race,
And call forth all thy father in thy soul.

39. Air
Iole
Banish love from thy breast,
‘Tis a womanish guest,
Fit only mean thoughts to inspire.
Bright glory invites thee,
Fair honour excites thee,
To tread in the steps of thy sire.
Banish love. . . da capo

40. Recitative
Hyllus
Forgive a passion, which resistless sways
Ev’n breasts immortal.

41. Air
Hyllus
From celestial seats descending,
Joys divine a while suspending,
Gods have left their Heav’n above
To taste the sweeter heav’n of love.
Cease my passion then to blame,
Cease to scorn a godlike flame.
From celestial seats. . . da capo

42. Chorus
Wanton god of am’rous fires,
Wishes, sighs and soft desires,
All nature’s sons thy laws maintain.
O’er liquid air, firm land and swelling main
Extend thy uncontroll’d and boundless reign.

Scene 5
Another apartment. Hercules and Dejanira.

43. Recitative
Dejanira
Yes, I congratulate your titles, swell’d
With proud Oechalia’s fall; but oh, I grieve
To see the victor to the vanquish’d yield.
How lost, alas, how fall’n from what you were,
Your fame eclips’d, and all your laurels blasted!
Hercules
Unjust reproach! No, Dejanira, no,
While glorious deeds demand a just applause!

44. Air
Hercules
Alcides’ name in latest story
Shall with brightest lustre shine,
And future heroes rise to glory
By actions emulating mine.
Alcides’ name. . . da capo

45. Recitative
Dejanira
O glorious pattern of heroic deeds!
The mighty warrior, whom not Juno’s hate,
Nor a Iong series of incessant labours
Could e’er subdue, a captive maid has conquer’d.
O shame to manhood! O disgrace of arms!

46. Air
Dejanira
Resign thy club and lion’s spoils,
And fly from war to female toils!
For the glitt’ring sword and shield
The spindle and the distaff wield!
Thund’ring Mars no more shall arm thee,
Glory’s call no more shall warm thee,
Venus and her whining boy
Shall all thy wanton hours employ.
Resign thy club. . . da capo

47. Recitative
Hercules
You are deceiv’d! Some villain has bely’d
My ever-faithful love and constancy.
Dejanira
Would it were so, and that the babbler fame
Had not through all the Grecian cities spread
The shameful tale!
Hercules
The priests of Jupiter
Prepare with solemn rites to thank the god
For the success of my victorious arms.
The ready sacrifice expects my presence.
I go. Meantime let these suspicions sleep
Nor causeless jealousy alarm your breast!
Exit.

Scene 6
Dejanira
Dissembling, false, perfidious Hercules!
Did he not swear, when first he woo’d my Iove,
The sun should cease to dawn, the silver moon
Be blotted from her orb, ere he prov’d false?

48. Air
Dejanira
Cease, ruler of the day, to rise,
Nor, Cynthia, gild the evening skies!
To your bright beams he made appeal,
With endless night his falsehood seal!

49. Recitative
Dejanira
Some kinder pow’r inspire me to regain
His alienated love, and bring the wand’rer back!
Ah, lucky thought! I have a garment
Dipped in Nessus’ blood, when·from the wound he drew
The barbed shaft, sent by Alcides’ hand.
It boasts a wondrous virtue, to revive
Th’expiring flame of love. So Nessus told me,
When dying to my hand he trusted it.
I will prevail with Hercules to wear it
And prove its magic force. — And see, the herald,
Fit instrument to execute my purpose.

Scene 7
To her Lichas.
Dejanira
Lichas, thy hands shall to the temple bear
A rich embroider’d robe, and beg thy lord
Will instant o’er his manly shoulders throw
His consort’s gift, the pledge of love’s renewal.
Lichas
O pleasing task, O happy Hercules!

50. Air
Lichas
Constant lovers, never roving,
Never jealous torments proving,
Calm, imperfect pleasures taste.
But the bliss to rapture growing,
Bliss from reconcilement flowing,
This is love’s sublime repast.

51. Recitative
Dejanira
But see, the princess Iole. Retire!
Exit Lichas.
Dejanira
Be still, my jealous fears, and let my tongue
Disguise the torture of my bleeding heart.

Scene 8
Enter Iole.
Dejanira
Forgive me, princess, if my jealous frenzy
Too roughly greeted you! I see and blame
The error that misled me to insult
That innocence and beauty.
Iole
Thank the gods
That have inspir’d your mind with calmer thoughts.
And from your breast remov’d the vulture, jealousy.
Live, and be happy in Alcides’ love.
While wretched lole… (weeping)
Dejanira
Princess, no more! But lift those beauteous eyes
To the fair prospect of returning happiness.
At my request Alcides shall restore you
To liberty, and your paternal throne.

52. Duet
Dejanira
Joys of freedom, joys of pow’r,
Wait upon the coming hour
And court thee to be blest.
Iole
What heav’nly-pleasing sounds I hear,
How sweet they steal upon my ear
And charm my soul to rest!
Exit Iole.

53. Recitative
Dejanira
Father of Hercules, great Jove, oh help
This last expedient of despairing love!

54. Chorus
Love and Hymen, hand in hand,
Come, restore the nuptial band!
And sincere delights prepare
To crown the hero and the fair.
Love and Hymen. . . da capo

ACT THREE

55. Sinfonia
Scene 1
Lichas and Trachinians.

56. Recitative
Lichas
Ye sons of Trachin, mourn your valiant chief,
Return’d from foes and dangers threat’ning death
To fall, inglorious, by a woman’s hand.
First Trachinian
Oh, doleful tindings!
Lichas
As the hero stood
Prepar’d for sacrifice, and festal pomp
Adorn’d the temple, these unlucky hands
Presented him, in Dejanira’s name,
A costly robe, the pledge of love’s renewal.
With smiles that testified his rising joy,
Alcides o’er his manly shoulders threw
The treach’rous gift. But when the altar’s flame
Began to shed its warmth upon his limbs,
The clinging robe, by cursed art envenom’d,
Through all his joints dispers’d a subtle poison.
Frantic with agonizing pain, he flings
His tortur’d body on the sacred floor,
Then strives to rip the deadly garment off,
But with it tears the bleeding, mangled flesh;
His dreadful cries the vaulted roof returns!

57. Air
Lichas
O scene of unexampl’d woe,
O sun of glory sunk so low!
What language can our sorrow tell?
Gallant, unhappy chief, farewell!

58. Chorus of Trachinians
Tyrants now no more shall dread
On necks of vanquish’d slaves to tread.
Horrid forms of monstrous birth
Again shall vex the groaning earth.
Fear of punishment is o’er,
The world’s avenger is no more!

Scene 2
The Temple of Jupiter. Hercules, Priests and Attendants.

59. Accompagnato
Hercules
O Jove, what land is this, what clime accurst,
By raging Phoebus scorch’d? I burn, I burn,
Tormenting fire consumes me. Oh, I die,
Some ease, ye pitying powers! — I rage, I rage,
With more than Stygian pains.
Along my feverish veins,
Like liquid fire the subtle poison hastes.
Boreas, bring thy northern blast,
And through my bosom roar!
Or, Neptune, kindly pour
Ocean’s collected flood
Into my breast and cool my boiling blood!
60. Recitative
Hyllus
Great Jove, relieve his pains!
Hercules
Was it for this unnumber’d toils I bore?
O Juno and Eurystheus, I absolve ye!
Your keenest malice yield to Dejanira’s,
Mistaken, cruel, treach’rous Dejanira!
Oh, this curst robe! It clings to my torn sides
And drinks my vital blood.
Hyllus
Alas, my father!
Hercules
My son, observe thy dying sire’s request!
While yet I live, bear me to Œta’s top;
There, on the summit of that cloud-capped hill,
The tow’ring oak and lofty cypress fell,
And raise a funeral pile: upon it lay me.
Then fire the kindling heap, that I may mount
On wings of flame, to mingle with the gods!
Hyllus
O glorious thought! Worthy the son of Jove!
Hercules
My pains redouble — Oh, be quick, my son.
And bear me to the scene of glorious death!
Hyllus
How is the hero fall’n!

61. Air
Hyllus
Let not fame the tidings spread
To proud Oechalia’s conquer’d wall!
The baffled foe will lift his head,
And triumph in his victor’s fall.
Let not fame. . . da capo
Exeunt. Hercules borne off.

Scene 3
The Palace. Dejanira alone.

62. Accompagnato
Dejanira
Where shall I fly? Where hide this guilty head?
O fatal error of misguided love!
O cruel Nessus, how art thou reveng’d!
Wretched I am! By me Alcides dies!
These impious hands have sent my injur’d lord
Untimely to the shades! Let me be mad!
Chain me, ye Furies, to your iron beds,
And lash my guilty ghost with whips of scorpions!
See, see, they come! Alecto with her snakes,
Megaera fell, and black Tisiphone!
See the dreadful sisters rise,
Their baneful presence taints the skies!
See the snaky whips they bear!
What yellings rend my tortur’d ear!
Hide me from their hated sight,
Friendly shades of blackest night!
Alas, no rest the guilty find
>From the pursuing furies of the mind!

Scene 4
Dejanira; to her Iole.

63. Recitative
Dejanira
Lo, the fair fatal cause of all this ruin!
Fly from my sight, detested sorceress, fly,
Lest my ungovern’d fury rush upon thee,
And scatter thee to all the winds of Heav’n!
Alas, I rave! The lovely maid is innocent,
And I alone the guilty cause of all!
Iole
Though torn from every joy, a father’s love,
My native land and dear-priz’d liberty.
By Hercules’ arms, still must I pity
The countless woes of this unhappy house.

64. Air
Iole
My breast with tender pity swells
At sight of human woe;
And sympathetic anguish feels
Where’er Heav’n strikes the blow.
My breast. . . da capo

Scene 5
To them the Priest of Jupiter, Hyllus, Lichas and Trachinians.

65. Recitative
Priest of Jupiter
Princess, rejoice, whose Heav’n-directed hand
Has rais’d Alcides to the court of Jove’s!
Dejanira
Speak, priest, what means this dark, mysterious greeting?
That he is dead, and by this fatal hand,
Too sure, alas, my bleeding heart divines.
Priest
Borne, by his own command, to Oeta’s top,
Stretched on a funeral pile, the hero lay.
The crackling flames surround his manly limbs,
When lo, an eagle, stooping from the clouds,
Swift to the burning pile his flight directs!
There lights a moment, then, with speedy wing,
Regains the sky. Astonish’d, we consult
The sacred grove, where sounds oracular
From vocal oaks disclose the will of Jove.
Here the great sire his offspring’s fate declar’d:
« His mortal part by eating fires consum’d,
His part immortal to Olympus borne,
There with assembl’d deities to dwell! »

66. Air
Lichas
He, who for Atlas propp’d the sky,
Now sees the sphere beneath him lie,
In bright abodes
Of kindred gods,
A new-admitted guest,
With purple lips
Brisk nectar sips,
And shares th’ambrosial feast.

67. Recitative
Dejanira
Words are too faint to speak the warring passions
That combat in my breast: grief, wonder, joy
By turns deject and elevate my soul.
Priest (to Iole)
Nor less thy destiny, illustrious maid,
Is Jove’s peculiar care, who thus decrees:
« Hymen with purest joys of love shall crown
Oechalia’s princess and the son of Hercules. »
Hyllus
How blest is Hyllus, if the lovely lole,
Consenting, ratifies the gift of Heav’n!
Iole
What Jove ordains, can lole resist?

68. Duet
Iole
O prince, whose virtues all admire,
Since Jove has every bar remov’d,
I feel my vanquish’d heart conspire
To crown a flame by Heav’n approv’d.
Hyllus
O princess, whose exalted charms
Above ambition fire my breast,
How great my joy to fill those arms,
At once with love and empire blest!
Iole
I grieve no more, since now I see
All happiness restor’d in thee.
Hyllus
I ask no more, since now I find
All earthly good in thee combin’d.

69. Recitative
Priest
Ye sons of freedom, now, in every clime,
With joyful accents sing the deathless chief,
By virtue to the starry mansions rais’d.

70. Chorus of Trachinians
To him your grateful notes of praise belong,
The theme of liberty’s immortal song!
Aw’d by his name, oppression shuns the light,
And slavery hides her head in depths of night,
While happy climes to his example owe
The blessings that from peace and freedom flow.
To him. . . da capo

 

 

About Roger W. Smith

Roger W. Smith is a writer and independent scholar based in New York City. His experience includes freelance writing and editing, business writing, book reviewing, and the teaching of writing and literature as an adjunct professor. Mr. Smith's interests include personal essays and opinion pieces; American and world literature; culture, especially books and reading; current issues that involve social, moral, and philosophical views; and experiences of daily living from a ground level perspective. Besides (1) rogersgleanings.com, a personal site, he also hosts a websites devoted to (2) the author Theodore Dreiser and (3) to the sociologist and social philosopher Pitirim Aleksandrovich Sorokin.
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